Introduction

Cardiovascular disease and, specifically, coronary disease is one of the main causes of mortality in developed countries. Coronary disease is understood to be one that causes lesions in the arteries that nourish the heart (coronary arteries) […]

Cardiovascular Disease


The cardiovascular disease and in particular coronary heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries . Coronary disease is understood to be one that causes lesions in the arteries that nourish the heart (coronary arteries) and that manifests itself in the form of myocardial infarction or angina pectoris .

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW…

Cardiovascular diseases are, ahead of breast cancer, the leading cause of death among the Spanish female population.

Estrogens protect women from the onset of cardiovascular diseases until postmenopause.

The risk factors are similar in men and women (tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and overweight), but there are others linked to it (estrogens, breast cancer, hypertension in pregnancy).

Cardiovascular diseases have different incidence, evolution and prognosis in the population depending on sex. Mortality from cardiovascular disease in European women under 75 years of age is around 40% compared to 38% for men of the same age. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in women is not exactly known, as there are no comprehensive epidemiological data. This is because the large studies carried out on this pathology have been carried out in the male population. What we do know is that cardiovascular diseases are, ahead of breast cancer , the leading cause of death among the Spanish female population.

More protected?

According to a recently published study, women are more physiologically protected than men against cardiovascular disease.

The reason is not yet clear, but it appears that it may be due to two possible biological reasons. The first, thanks to female hormones: estrogens protect women from the onset of cardiovascular diseases until postmenopausal. Since then, a series of physical and metabolic changes appear in women that cause an increase in the incidence of classic risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, weight gain) and, therefore, increase their risk of suffering some cardiovascular disease.

Second, it has been seen that during pregnancy there are a series of changes in the anatomy and functioning of the heart (due to increased needs) that "train" it and would be responsible for reducing the cardiovascular risk to which they are exposed women. In fact, new drugs made from female hormones are currently being investigated as a possible treatment for heart failure.

Women tend to be older than men when they suffer from cardiovascular disease and this complicates their recovery. After menopause, women have a worse prognosis than men (due to the loss of estrogens), since they no longer receive the natural protection of estrogens and, with this, risk factors multiply.

Symptoms of cardiovascular disease in women

Regarding the difference in the presentation of symptoms, it has been seen that in women there is a lower frequency of appearance of classic chest pain (radiating to the left arm) and when it appears it is usually atypical. In addition, symptoms related to heart failure (such as shortness of breath or dyspnea) are more common.

Cardiovascular risk factors are similar in men and women (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and overweight), although there are some differences with respect to these so-called classic factors. The measures aimed at preventing them, therefore, are similar in both sexes:

Physical activity: sedentary lifestyle is more common in women, men generally practice more sports.

Smoking: in recent years there has been an increase in tobacco in women, compared to the decrease in men, probably linked to social reasons.

Diabetes and overweight: in general, overweight and diabetes are more common in women, especially after 55 years.

Dyslipidemia: from the age of 50, women have higher cholesterol than men.

Hypertension: the prevalence of hypertension is higher in women from 65 years of age.

On the other hand, there are certain risk factors linked to women and that are not present in men:

Estrogens: the loss of estrogens after menopause eliminates the cardio protective capacity.

Breast cancer treatment: some drugs used in its treatment increase the risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease.

Appearance of high blood pressure during pregnancy.

Of interest

FUNDACIÓN MAPFRE, Foundation Pro CNIC, and the Community of Madrid launch the “Women for the heart” campaign, to publicize the preventive measures that prevent the disease in women, its main symptoms, and how to act.

Enter the web and you can download the guide "Take care, heart" in which you can expand all this information and learn to prevent cardiovascular disease and recognize the symptoms of heart attack

Our main duty is to be guardians of our health, during any stage of our life.

In this way we help each other to have an optimal quality of life in all

cycles. Health is the state of physical, metal and social well-being. We say

that someone is healthy, when their organs and body systems can carry

out normally all the activities necessary for the proper functioning of the

body.

health care


The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a complete state

of physical, mental and social well-being; not only the absence of diseases

or illnesses. For this reason, we emphasize that, beyond pathologies,

health encompasses various factors that intervene in the quality of life of

each one. A healthy person is one who enjoys a full and happy life at all

levels.

So, should we take care of our health? Of course we do. We all want to feel

good and that leads us to be happy. That is why we must keep in mind a

series of habits that will help improve our health.

Care to consider

We all need a good diet, rich in nutrients and vitamins. We need

quantities and dierent types of food. We require more food when we

are in the growth phase, when we are working, doing high intensity

exercises and when we are sick. Eating large amounts can also harm

your health. Excess food causes our body to store unnecessary fats,

contributing to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

Playing sports or exercising helps us improve our physical form. It

strengthens the body's defenses, providing us with vitality and makes us

happy. When we exercise we release endorphins, giving us a feeling of

well-being. With just 30 minutes a day of some physical activity we can

obtain great benefits.

Our body needs to rest and replenish energy, therefore, we must

sleep well. Sleep is the decisive factor in being able to undertake daily

activities with energy and concentration.

Bad vices play a bad role in our body. We must eliminate tobacco,

alcohol and drugs; These are substances that are harmful to our body,

increasing the chances of contracting diseases.

The positive attitude towards life is a fundamental requirement to

establish healthy personal relationships, it helps us to handle stressful

situations; improving our mental health.

What happens when we don't take care of ourselves?

When we are sick our quality of life is diminished, our capacities are

diminished, altering the daily life of us and our close relatives. By not

following the recommendations to lead a healthy lifestyle, we can increase

the risk of suering from diseases (cardiovascular, infectious diseases or

psychiatric diseases such as depression or anxiety).

When we are not in good health, we cannot work, we do not feel well and

we cannot provide ourselves or our family with an income to live as usual.

The march of El Rubius to Andorra has put the Spanish tax system in the eye of the hurricane. Why are youtubers leaving, are they really paid less taxes in Andorra? And if so, aren't we talking about a tax haven?



How taxes work, in Andorra and in any country in the world

Benjamin Franklin said that "in this world there are only two things for sure: death and paying taxes." All countries have their own tax system , which includes different types of taxes.

Taxes are used to defray state spending and to redistribute the wealth of a country, at least in theory. That is one of the functions of the Personal Income Tax or income statement , for example, where those who earn the most also pay more because the personal income tax tables are progressive.

Along the same lines, the Wealth Tax levies the assets that a person has and is especially focused on the highest assets. But not all taxes work like this.

VAT, for example, is not a progressive type of tax, but a regressive one . The VAT percentage that is paid is the same regardless of the salary you earn or your assets. The only difference in VAT is the type of product on which it is applied. In the most basic it is 4% and in the majority it is 21%.

When it comes to paying more or less taxes, it is common to think of personal income tax. The reality is that the impact of VAT is much greater on your portfolio. If there is a tax that affects your economy, this is VAT. According to the data from the Fiscal Liberation Day report developed by the Civismo think tank, its impact is between 3,100 and 4,400 euros per household depending on the type of family.

And all this without having touched all the taxes directed exclusively to companies, such as Corporation Tax .

However, this is only in Spain. The reality is that taxes change in every country in the world . Not all have the same types of taxes or apply the same rates. There are states that even lack income tax or VAT.

What you should be clear about is that there is a certain correlation between the welfare state paid by the Government and taxes . As a general rule, a lower tax burden usually leads to fewer social benefits. Thus, for example, if you want to have access to healthcare, there are countries where you will need private health insurance.

It is something similar to what happens with pensions , which, however, do not depend on taxes but on your Social Security contributions. The lower the contribution, the lower the public pension as well. The solution, again, is through private savings and creating a plan to supplement the public pension , something that is done in most European countries.

Andorra is not different from other countries in tax terms. Andorrans and residents of Andorra also pay taxes, only these are different and lower than Spaniards.

How much could you save on taxes in Andorra

If youtubers go to Andorra to pay less taxes, which does not seem the only or the main motivation for ElRubius, it will be because tax savings are important. In other words, in Andorra they will pay less taxes. Is it really so

The key to finding out is in the taxes that exist in Andorra and their tax rate. This is a summary of the most important types of taxes in Andorra.

VAT Andorra vs Spain



Personal Income Tax Andorra vs Spain



These income tax tables work progressively and not having it is one of the mistakes when making the income .

For practical purposes, only in personal income tax the difference for income such as those that ElRubius generates in theory, would translate into paying 4.5 times less . Compared to 1.81 million euros in Spain, it will pay 386,800 euros.

And for a person with income closer to the average? The average salary in Spain is 24,009.12 euros and in Androrra no income taxes are paid until it exceeds 24,000 euros. It does not take many calculations to see the difference between just paying any personal income tax and doing it.

Just in case, the following table summarizes how much you would pay in taxes in Andorra based on your salary . The calculation is for a single person under 65 years of age in order to calculate the personal and family minimum.

 

Income        Taxes in Spain (IRPF) Taxes in Andorra (IRPF)

€ 16,000                € 1,995  € 0

€ 25,000                € 4,057.5              € 50

€ 30,000                € 5,515.5              € 300

€ 35,000                € 7,015.5              550 €

€ 40,000                € 8,515.5              € 800

€ 60,000                € 15,866.5            € 2,800

€ 80,000                € 24,426.5            € 4,800

€ 100,000             € 33,426.5            € 4,800

If you wonder why with € 16,000 you get to return the rent, remember that each month they withhold a part of your payroll as personal income tax withholding.

Now that you know what the real difference is between Spain and Andorra in terms of personal income tax and how much you could save if you also leave, it is easy for two questions to arise . The first, if Andorra is not really a tax haven . The second , if you could pay taxes in Andorra or what conditions must be met to do so.

So, is Andorra a tax haven?

The reality is, no. Andorra is not a tax haven. It is only a country in which few taxes are paid or, rather, less taxes than in Spain, and it is not the only one. In Ireland, for example, the tax burden on companies is also much lower and that does not mean that it is a tax haven, necessarily.

 

The term tax haven is reserved for countries that meet certain conditions. The most general is that foreign investors with bank accounts or companies in their territory are exempt from paying taxes, not residents of the country, who will have to pay the same as you do in Spain or where you reside.

From there, the OECD establishes a series of specific criteria to define what a tax haven is :

The personal data of investors and shareholders of companies does not appear in the public records and the use of figureheads or formal representatives is allowed.

They keep bank secrecy as a rule, so that bank details are only shared in the case of crimes related to terrorism or drug trafficking, but not for basic tax crimes.

They do not have banking collaboration agreements with other countries.

They do not sign treaties to avoid double taxation.

In general terms, they are not very transparent countries, that do not share fiscal or banking information and where large fortunes tend to receive preferential treatment.

The Tax Agency has its own list of tax havens, just like the European Commission or the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Andorra ceased to be considered a tax haven in 2018 when it began to share the financial information of its residents.

Where you should pay: the risk of changing your country of residence

Could you pay taxes in Andorra? What do you have to pay to pay taxes in Andorra? The quick answer is: change your tax residence.

In other words, go live in Andorra and make this move real . For the Tax Agency, your tax residence is where you actually live most of the year, that is, more than 183 days. This is the first and foremost requirement to define where your tax residence is.

If you can prove that your home is in Andorra and that you live there, you will be able to pay taxes under the rules of the neighboring country and you will do so legally, in addition. The problem comes when these changes are not real. That is where the AEAT remains vigilant and on the lookout, as is logical.

This affects those who, for example, have a house in both countries. According to the agreement between Spain and Andorra, in those cases it will be necessary to pay taxes where the taxpayer's center of economic interests is. For this reason, for example, Moto Gp riders are advised not to have property in Spain and that is why the AEAT also investigated and fined Jorge Lorenzo.

In the case of youtubers, one of the keys would be the origin of their income. That is, if the base of its followers is in Spain or is it more global. Those who depend on our country, have moved just to pay less taxes, have a house in Spain and share their time almost equally between both countries are the ones who have the most options to be investigated.

And in your case? Unless you can go live in Andorra, you will continue to be a Spanish taxpayer and tax resident , with all the good and bad that that implies.

The world has already reached 109 million cases of coronavirus by the middle of this month of February, of which 3.06 million have occurred in Spain .

With these data, provided by organizations such as the WHO , Spain ranks sixth in terms of number of cases . Only the United States, India, Brazil, the United Kingdom and France, all of them countries with more population, are currently ahead.

coronavirus affected


In fact, if we compare these data by cumulative incidence per 100,000 inhabitants, Spain is in second place with 6,640 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. only behind the United States (8,440 cases per 100,000 inhabitants).

A pandemic that arrived in force before in other places

These high figures have opened a whole range of hypotheses about its causes, many of them convergent. Some of them will take time to verify, others will always remain within the probable.

What is unquestionable is that, unlike other areas in the world, Europe in general and Spain in particular, it was the geographical area hardest hit during the months of March and April with the first wave of the pandemic .

This led to a lower degree of knowledge and preparation and thus the mortality rates, not only in Spain, but also in other countries such as Italy were very high.

Thus, despite the virulence of the second or third wave , mortality is not comparable with the first, when the health system was not prepared.

Early coronavirus identification system

For many experts, in addition, one of the problems in Spain has been the deficiencies in early identification systems . If it is compared to how they were used in other countries like South Korea, for example.

Thus, except in some regions, and after the first wave of the pandemic, mass tests have not been widely used.

Meanwhile, in other countries this system helped detect those infected and cut the chains of transmission . With this, the coronavirus was prevented from reaching very vulnerable groups such as the elderly.

Geographical reasons

One of the reasons for its rapid spread is the position of Spain, which, like other European countries, has a large number of international travelers, both for business and leisure reasons.

This allowed that in the initial phase, possibly multiple infections occurred, of different origins, which multiplied until reaching the limit situation that led to strict confinement.

Population density

When a contagious disease like the coronavirus goes from controlled cases to community transmission, its incidence rate multiplies in the most densely populated areas .

Thus, for example, Madrid with a density of 840 inhabitants per km 2 (that of Spain is 94 km 2 ) has been one of the most affected regions of Spain.

It is not a unique case. In Italy, for example, the most affected area has also been Lombardy, where the population density is also one of the highest in the country.

High aging rate

But the pandemic has not only "primed" in highly populated areas. Other provinces, such as Segovia, Soria or Guadalajara, with very low densities have had very high incidences and mortalities per inhabitant.

This seems to be related to two points. The first is the proximity to a focus as important as Madrid, with many inhabitants with second homes. And the one that seems most important, the aging of the population .

 

A highly aged population has a higher proportion of other pathologies and the impact of the coronavirus is greater. If, in addition, it reaches nursing homes, as has happened, its effect is devastating.

Our way of relating

Finally, the high level of community transmission may also be related to the ways of relating to each other .

As is also the case with Italy, in Spain we tend not only to social gatherings, but also to physical closeness, which also multiplies infections.

In short, although in the coming months and years we will have many studies and analyzes, it seems clear that the confluence of different causes has motivated the important impact that Spain has suffered.

One of the great achievements of medicine has been the continuous increase in the life expectancy of the population. Spain is one of the countries with the highest life expectancy . However, this increase in life years is not always associated with quality of life or with our ability to take care of health.

Health Prevention Why is your health care important?


But, as a starting point…. what is health?

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being , and not only the absence of diseases or illnesses. In other words, health is a condition of well-being that goes beyond the absence of disease.

"Health is not everything but without it, everything else is nothing." A. Schopenhauer

How to take care of health?

Whether or not you are in good health depends on a multitude of factors. Sometimes there are hereditary (genetic) components that are not modifiable, but most risk factors can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Taking care of your health is easy if we follow the following tips:

1. Healthy and balanced diet

Maintaining a balanced diet is the key when it comes to taking care of your health . Refined sugars and all excessively sweetened products should be avoided, as well as saturated fats and trans fats. For this, it is important to effectively combine the intake of proteins (fish, meat), fats (oil, butter) and carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables, pasta, bread). Likewise, it is essential to drink between 1.5 and 2 liters of water a day.

The amounts should be controlled and eating based on what the body needs of each one (according to their energy consumption).

2. Good hygiene

It is important to wash your hands well, maintain good oral hygiene , etc.

3. Exercise regularly

The  moderate exercise strengthens the heart, improves circulation and helps eliminate toxins among many other benefits. It is important to exercise regularly and according to age. The WHO recommends at least 30 minutes a day of exercise to avoid health problems.

As a daily exercise  we can also understand climbing the stairs or walking instead of taking other transport. That easy!

4. Avoid the consumption of toxic substances

We refer to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol or any other type of drug.

5. Create a good environment around us

Creating a good environment is achieved by promoting healthy personal relationships, avoiding stress, etc.

6. Have moments to relax

It is important to have  moments of relaxation , to think about other things that escape from the routine and daily worries. All this minimizes the appearance of stress and its symptoms.

7. Medical check-ups

Periodic medical check-ups are the best way to control our health and to be able to respond in time to any possible incident.

8. Ensure good rest

The brain and nervous system need to slow down, rest, and cleanse in order to continue to function at full capacity. This is achieved with sleep. Each person can have an optimal number of hours that they must meet and that is usually between 6 and a half hours and 8 hours.

Pay attention to the way you sit, use a good pillow and a good mattress; will help maintain healthy bones and muscles.

9. Watch the times

Our body works in a cyclical way and automatically gets used to performing certain functions at certain times of the day and does so involuntarily day after day. When these habits are voluntarily changed, certain functions are performed with less performance, so it is advisable to match involuntary acts with volunteers, making meals whenever possible at the same times every day, always at the same bedtime. and get up, etc.

10. Exercise the mind

Keep your mind busy with reading, crossword puzzles, puzzles or memory exercises, because in addition to helping the brain to stay awake, active and in good shape, it also helps to disconnect from the routine.

What happens if I don't take care of myself?

The disease influences the loss of quality of life , can reduce the patient's abilities and alter his daily life and that of family and friends around him.

Not following the recommendations of a healthy lifestyle can increase the risk of certain diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases or psychiatric diseases such as depression or anxiety.

According to experts, 80% of cardiovascular diseases - high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, etc. - and a third of cancers could be prevented by following a healthy lifestyle.

Take care with Aegon

Take care of yourself and yours thanks to our health insurance . In important moments there is always someone supporting you, taking care of you and taking care of all those things that are important to you. What you expect from an insurer is that it is there whenever you need it. That is why at Aegon we are not satisfied with giving you the best service. Because we cannot replace friends, or family, or those who are always close, but what we can do is be there when you need us so that you feel as calm and accompanied as you feel with them.

 

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